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Fermentation Technologies


Fermentation Technologies

Share experience about cane molasses Fermentation, getting best yield, controlling foaming with less use of antifoam. 

Location: Shahmurad Ethanol Jhoke city
Members: 1
Latest Activity: Oct 15, 2015

Fermentation: An Art from the Past, a Skill for the Future

The origins of fermentation are lost in ancient history, perhaps even in prehistory. We
know that the ancient Egyptians and Sumerians both had knowledge of the techniques
used to convert starchy grains into alcohol. For most of history these processes, or similar
ones based on fruit juice conversion, have represented the most commonly accepted
interpretation of the word ‘fermentation’.
However, ‘fermentation’ has many different and distinct meanings for differing groups
of individuals. In the present context we intend it to mean the use of submerged liquid
culture of selected strains of microorganisms, plant or animal cells, for the manufacture
of some useful product or products, or to gain insights into the physiology of these cell
types. This is a relatively narrow defi nition, but would include the ‘traditional’ fermentations
described above. By contrast, the modern fermentation industry, which is largely a
product of the Twentieth century, is dominated by aerobic cultivations intended to make
a range of higher value products than simple ethanol.
In recent years there has been a tremendous expansion in the use of fermentation technology
by individuals with less training in the subject than previous exponents of these
techniques. This book is aimed at scientists and engineers relatively new to the subject
of fermentation technology, and is intended to be the text equivalent of the briefi ngs and
chats that mentors in this area would have with newcomers. It is meant to be a means of
passing on the experiences we have had in many years of fermentation to relative newcomers
to the subject, so that perhaps, you will be able to avoid some of the more obvious
pitfalls we fell into. It is specifi cally not intended as a reference text to the principles
underlying fermentation science and engineering, as such volumes already exist. Each
Practical Fermentation Technology Edited by Brian McNeil and Linda M. Harvey
© 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-01434-9
2 Practical Fermentation Technology
chapter in this book is accompanied by a short ‘further reading section’ or supporting
reference section, which generally contain a list of a few book chapters, or relevant
reviews supporting the material in the chapter.
The fermentation industry today is very much in a state of fl ux, with rapid changes in
location, product spectrum, and scale of processes occurring. To a large extent this has
been brought about by macroeconomic forces compelling the relocation of large scale
bioprocesses outside high labour cost regions, but also by the successful deciphering
of the human genome with its myriad of new therapeutic targets , and the signifi cant
advances in the construction of advanced fermentation expression systems for making
novel proteins and antibodies.
Thus, fermentation skills and knowledge are now essential to driving forward systematic
research into drug/receptor interactions, function of membrane proteins in health
and disease, and are powering an unparalleled expansion in our capability to combat
serious diseases in the human population, including cancers, degenerative illnesses such
as Alzheimer’s, and increasingly common complaints of developed societies such as
asthma. The new fermentation-derived medicines, including biopharmaceuticals, hold out
the prospect of improved specifi city of treatment, and decreased side effects. It is truly a
revolutionary period in clinical medicine as these new agents manufactured by fermentation
routes enter the market. The ‘new’ fermentation products, therapeutic proteins,
antibodies(simple and conjugated) are more complex and costly than previous products,
but, in essence, the need to focus upon the fermentation step is now clearer than ever.
Basically, the ‘quality’ of these products(the potency, effi cacy, stability and immunogenicity)
is determined by the upstream or fermentation stage, so the need for a clear
understanding of what happens in that stage, how it can best be monitored, controlled,
and carried out in a reproducible fashion, is greater than ever. It is in exactly these areas
that the many often highly capable individuals entering fermentation are unwittingly
defi cient in background.
The long heralded era of personalized medicine may well be imminent due to recent
advances in cultivation and replication of stem cells. This will make the need for scientists
and engineers who understand culture techniques even greater in coming years. Thus, the
demand for fermentation skills is likely to increase in the immediate future. Fermentation
has contributed much to the well-being and wealth of human populations over millennia;
it will continue to do so to an even greater extent in the future We hope this book will
help those coming recently to this fi eld to contribute more effectively to that process.

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Comment Wall

Comment by Tahir farooque on September 17, 2015 at 1:56am

The history of the Word ‘molasses’ ( ‘Melasse’ in German and Dutch) is not mentioned in Etymological
dictionaries since it is quite definitely and clearly derived from the Romanic languages. It occurs in the
same word from and with the same meaning in French, la mélasse, i.e. syrup or sugar honey and it has its
counterparts in other Romanic languages, melassa (Italian), melaza (Spanish)*, melaço (Portuguese),
going back to the feminine form of the Latin adjective mellaceus, -a, -um, i.e. honey-like, and ultimately,
to mel (Latin), honey. Accordingly, it originally was used in the context (substantia) mellacea, i.e. honeylike
substance. The change in meaning appears in the Spanish suffix -aza, which expresses a coarsening,
whereby attention is directed to the character of the substance as a coarse, thick crude honey. Any
attempt, therefore, to derive the word from the Greek μελασ (melas), black, is misdirected.
The term ‘molasses’ is applied to the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated
crystallization. The amount of molasses obtained and its quality (composition) provide information about
the nature of the beets (local conditions of growth and effects of the weather) and the processing in the
sugar factory, such as the efficiency of the juice clarification, the method of crystallization during
boiling, and the separation of the sugar crystals from the low-grade massecuite.
In white sugar factories the yield of molasses is in the neighbourhood of 4% on beets, corresponding to
up to 25% on sugar. With an average sugar content in the beets of 16-18% only 13 to 14% of the sugar
will be recovered as a commercial product. As an average, 2.2-2.6% sugar on beets will go into the
molasses when raw sugar is produced. The yield of molasses is affected by various factors and differs
from batch to batch. The daily storage loss in Western Europe is estimated at 0.062% sugar on stored
beets or 0.1% sugar decrease in the white sugar yield, resulting in the differences1 for
each 1% sugar decrease in stored beets.

Comment by Tahir farooque on October 15, 2015 at 4:13am


description about Enzymes working on Molasses Fermentation.

Comment by Tahir farooque on October 15, 2015 at 4:18am

Enymes Work on Molasses Fermentation

Tahir Farooque Mirpurkhas Sindh





 The present invention relates to methods of utilizing at least one transglucosidase enzyme to increase the amount of fermentable sugars in molasses fermentation processes. The transglucosidase enzyme can be used alone or in combination with other carbohydrate processing enzymes.




 Molasses typically refers to a by-product from sugarcane and beet processing. Molasses is produced globally in very large amounts. For instance, in the year 2005, molasses production globally was estimated at 50.7 million tons. About 48% of the total molasses was produced in Asia, and the major share of that was produced in India, China and Thailand. The molasses produced from cane and beets each has a similar sugar composition. Both types of molasses contain both fermentable and non-fermentable sugars. However, beet molasses contains a lower concentration of fermentable sugars and a higher concentration of non-fermentable sugars than cane molasses. Industrial fermentations predominately use glucose and sucrose as feedstock for the production of a multitude of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, alcohols, organic acids, pharmaceuticals and other biochemicals. However, in many applications, molasses can also be used in fermentations.


 Typically, the total composition of molasses from sugarcane or beet sugar (sugars, proteins, etc) contains significant amounts of proteins, non-fermentable starch and non-fermentable oligosaccharides such as raffinose, a tri-saccharide (galactosyl-glucosyl -fructose), and stachyose, a tetra-saccharide (galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosyl-fructose). These non-fermentable sugars cannot be used in the fermentation process because the enzymes used in previous processes have not hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose to fermentable sugars. While a-Galactosidase, was reported to be capable of hydrolyzing non-fermentable sugars (See e.g., Suzuki U.S. Pat. No. 3,767,526, 1973; and Meguro et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,036,694, 1977), it did not hydrolyze raffinose and stachyose. Dextranase was also used to hydrolyze dextrins in sugar solutions (Murtaugh, J. E. 1999 Molasses as a feedstock for alcohol production. In: The Alcohol Textbook, 3rd Ed. K. A. Jacques, T. P. Lyons and D. R. Kelsall, eds Nottingham University Press, UK) but only worked on short-chain dextrins and did not hydrolyze non-fermentable sugars at all. Thus, better methods for enhancing the fermentability of molasses are needed.






 The invention provides novel processes for increasing the fermentation yield of molasses using a transglucosidase during or prior to fermentation. The processes are based on the surprising finding that the addition of a transglucosidase enzyme to molasses fermentations increased the yield of alcohol. Further tests showed unexpectedly that the transglucosidase hydrolyzed non-fermentable sugars in molasses, such as raffinose and stachyose into fermentable sugars. This was unexpected since transglucosidases are generally known for converting malto-oligosaccharides into isomalto-oligosaccharides such as isomaltose and panose which are less fermentable. 


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